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The Catalina Islander
Avalon, California
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December 17, 1930     The Catalina Islander
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December 17, 1930
 

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PAGE EIGHT FIGURES ON AVALON'S NEW OUTFALL SEWER Installation of z~~ 12 'inch, No. 150 Type T Universal Cast Iron Pipe Line on Ocean Floor at Pebbly Beach, Santa Catalina Island, Calif., 1930. By S. E. Carpenter The City of Avalon, located oil Santa Catalina Island, about 25 miles off the coast of California, south of Los Angeles Harbor, outgrew a por- tion of its sewer system. This neces- sitated replacing the last 1600 ft. of the old 10-inch vitrified clay sewer with 15 in., 18 in. and 24 in. vitrified clay pipe, the size increasing as ad- ditional branch lines feed into it.. The gradient of the sewer is very flat, and, in order to get the outfall a sufficient distance from the city, a collecting well and system of pumps is required. The 24 in. line carries the total sew- age from the city to a large concrete collecting well. A battery of three pumps lifts the sewage from this well and boosts it to the high point in the outfall line, which is about 14 feet above the inlet to the collecting well and 460 feet distant from it. This outfall line from the pumps was for- merly an 8-inch screw pipe but has been replaced with a class B 16-inch cast iron line about 4450 feet in length. There are two 12-inch Universal cast iron outlets into the ocean from this 16-inch outfall sewer, one 2100 feet from the end, the other at the end, The installation of these two 12- inch lines was the one part of the work which presented real problems. To be ;ure, 8-inch welded steel lines had been put in at these locations by being shoved in from shore. A cat- amaran was used at their outer ends to make sure they were free of the bottom It "..':'as ?,~sible that the same method could be used but the first thing to be guarded against with the cast iron lines was broken joints, where the pipe could not conform ex- actly to a more or less irregular ocean floor. Other things to be overcome were the excessive weight and resis- tance to sliding of the collars at the end of each 6-foot length of pipe. Soundings had been taken at 25 foot intervals which showed a rather uniform bed, with about 200 feet depth at the ends of the lines, approx- inmtely 7(10 feet from shore. It was decided to put in the outlet at the end of the line first, since the beach at this location was quite flat and of- fered much better working condi- tions. The profile at this location, however, showed one rather abrupt change in grade about 100 feet from shore. It was found that the pipe would weigh about 50. pounds per 6 foot length in the water with the water expelled. This meant less weight than the former steel lines, but the resis- tance to sliding of o the collars and possibility of breaking of joints was still present. No information could be obtained regarding a similar installa- tion. All plans and details therefore, had t~ be worked out by those in charge.. The following sehen~e was evolved to give more buoyancy and at the same time give fair assurance against the breaking of any joints as a re- sult of undue strain. The pipe was reinforced by wiring a continuous row of 2-in.xl2-in. planks on top of it, us- ing long enough splices in most cases to get a tie at each end in addition to good spiking. Secure wrappings of No. 6 wire were placed at each joint, copper wire alternating with iron; the copper to assu.re the plank remaining in place until the line was thoroughly bedded into place. Wedges were driv- en under wires to cinch them up. It was decided to try and install the line by shoving, and then resort to a pull if necessary. In order to keep the en'd of the line going in the dlreefion "desired a small anchor with marli:e~ .~s placed on line about 800 feet" 'fi'om shore with a line to shore. The catamaran at the end of the line followed along this anchor line but also had bridle lines to shore to counteract the strong current which is almost always pres- ent at this location. After a wooden plug was placed in the end of the line and tested for tightness, everything was ready for the installation. About 60 feet of track, consisting of light mine rails, extended from the board walk to a point beyond low tide . An "A" frame and endless chain hoist were used for lowering the pipe through the boardwalk onto the track. At first four lengths of pipe, 24 feet at a time, were bolted up; but later, 5 lengths, or 30 feet. The first 330 feet slid into the ocean before any mishaps or delays of any kind occur- red. It was then found that water was leaking into the line making the end very heavy and, hence, not free of the bottom. As a consequence, when the next shov'e was taken the pipe began buckling up and showed on the surface close to shore. Des- pite the fact that the pipe seemed to be very rigid laterally, the current carried this floating portion to one side. Bridle lines were attached and these, togethe_r with a pull from shore. soon straightened the line and had it settled on the bottom again. It was now evident that the wood- en plug had been lost from the end of the line, which meant that the air would have to be expelled by using compressors. A 12-inch gate valve was bolted onto the shore end of the line and the hose from two compressors connected to a fitting in the short length of pipe caulked into the valve. In order to avoid buckling the pipe again, a large anchor with buoy was placed on a line about 1000 feet from shore, so that a pull could be placed on the end of the line. A sheave was fastened to the buoy and a line from the end of the pipe passed through it anct then to shore t, the pulling winch. Shortly after the compressors were started, a leak appeared in about 6 feet of water. Observation through a glass bottom box showed that the pipe was disengaged on the top side at one joint. The line was picked up at a point several lengths inshore. thus engaging the pipe again and making it possible to tighten the bolts. A young Mexican boy, Andrew Her- nandez, a very capable diver, was called into service, and with a large crescent wrench soon had the leak stopped. Several joints in this vicin- ity which were leaking slightly he also tightened; but, to cap the climax, another leak showed up in about 30 feet of water. The diver went down and found the joint to be engaged, so low tide was awaited . The compres- sors were then started and a shove put on the pipe.. This brought the joint within 15 feet of the surface and the diver soon had it tightened up. In all this work the diver used no helmet of any sort. These leaks, which were the last ones, were probably a result of the buckling of the line, insufficient con- tact at joint, and the strain on the upper side of the joints wh,_'le passing over the rough place on the ocean floor. The balance of the line had every joint driven up with a large wooden mallet, which gave much bet- ter contact and eliminated all further trouble from leaks. The remainder of the line was in- stalled almost entirely" by pulling, the shoving equipment being used only to assist after the line started moving. No further difficulties of any kind were encountered. A second catamaran was installed about 200 feet from the end of the line to assist in easing the pull re- quired to start the pipe moving. Bri- dle lines to shore from both catam- arans enabled the line to be held in positioin despite the strong current. Observation of the line for several days after completion showed it rap- idly, settling into position on the .ocean floor, thu.s eliminating the danger of broken joints due to lack of support THE at various places, A sounding at the end of the line, about 700 feet from shore, showed a depth of 195 feet . Cadmium plated bolts, recommended by the Central Foundry Co. for use in salt water, were used throughout, and red lead in the metal to metal jooints. The Santa Catalina Island Com- pany, of which Mr. D. M. Renton is vice president and general manager, was the contractor ; John Botello, Public Utility foreman for the City of Avalon, was directly in charge of the work for the contractor, and was ably supported by a very willing crew of men. S. E. Carpenter, associate member of American Society of Civil Engineers, the writer, is engineer for the contractor. ---:o:-- AVALON PUBLIC LIBRARY Avalon Branch of the Los A~geles County Public Library, in Atwater Ar- cade, is open every week day frorn 2 to 5 arid 7 to 9 p.m. :O: Our Adlet Column helps. Try it. AVALON Catholic--'St. Sunday Masses, 8 _ day evening devotions, day mass 7:00 a.m. , * $ Christian A Branch of The First Church in ]3oston, Mas day Service School at 9:30 ing services at Subject Dec. 21, verse, including Atomic Force?", , * Sunday servle 9:30 a.m. a.m. and 7:00 Wednesday at cordially invited _._____~ 0 Cata]ina--"In all like this." 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