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Avalon, California
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February 20, 1924     The Catalina Islander
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February 20, 1924
 

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PAGE FOUR ENGINEER SAYS TEACH EINSTEIN IN SCHOOLS By Science Service "Einstein's theory of relativity should be made the basis of elementary edu- cation," said Count Alfred Korzybski in an exclusive interview with Science Service at Washington, D. C. The Polish engineer is extending the theo- ries he developed in his book on "The Manhood of Humanity" to education and sociology. "Absoluteism is dead," he said, "and relativity must take its place. Euclid thought he had written for all time 'the' geometry of 'the' space of the uni- verse. That was false. We now know that it was merely 'a' geometry of 'a' space, and that it is possible to con- struct other geometries and to con- ceive of other forms of space. Logic is not absolute, for there may be many forms of logic. Space, time and mat- ter are abstractions, not objects. Re- ality consists of an infinite series of events. What we call an object is an arbitrary selection of a finite group of characteristics of reality having a cer- tain permanency. This piece of pencil that I hold in my hand is a whirling cloud of electrons, continually chang- ing and never repeating itself; it is a piece of time, a piece of space, and a piece of matter indivisibly combined, for if it had no time it would be a mere flash, and if it had no space it would be a mere point. "A universe where motion is appar- ently omnipresent must be at least 4 dimensional, and therefore only a four- dimensional language can account for such a universe. Modern mathemati- cians are quietly working out such a language, because they know that the old three-dimensional terms cannot cover the facts. With an animal all that matters is what he is. With man it matters not only what he is, but what he thinks he is. One factor with animals, two factors with man. This collapsible structure we call civilization is based on a misunderstanding of the nature of man. The autonomous time- binding energy of man makes him po- tentially immortal, as every autono- mous process theoretically must be." Count Krozybski has constructed a mechanical model of this theory, which he calls the "anthropometer." It is constructed of wood, and looks like some' sort of a Chinese musical instru- ment, but serves to show plainly his conception of the relations between re- ality, concepts and symbols, and the difference between the mental proces- es of men and animals. CAMOUFLAGED FISH By Science Service Submarine color photography has given additional evidence for the the- ory that the gaily colored fishes of tropical reefs wear their gay colors so that they may more easily fade into their environment. They escape larg- er fish which prey upon them, while at the same time becoming hard to be seen by the littler fish upon which they in turn feed. Photographs taken near the sea bottom in these shallow waters have shown the natural back- ground of corals, sponges, sea-anemo- nes and other marine growths to be brilliantly colored. The gaudy fish merely conform to their background, and their gay colors are another in- stance of natural camouflage. Subscribe now--.$2 per year. MUSIC IN THE UNITED STATES By Mrs. Ruth Pitts (Read before a recent meeting of the Mary Williams Club) The English settlers who came to this country and located at Jamestown, and their successors, brought with them from their homes the songs they sang there--gay songs, cavalier songs, love- ditties, and countryside tunes; but they left them at this, making no attempt to adapt them to their new surround- ings. Indeed, it was as much a matter of fashion to be able to play or to sing some new ballad just brought from London as it was to have the latest fashion in dress. The cavaliers of Vir- ginia were not people to give a dis- tinctive tone to music in their adopted home. The stern, severe, religious atmos- phere of the New England colonies did more for the beginnings of American music, although the first efforts were unpromising enough, since the Puri- tans discountenanced all music except that of psahn tunes, which were prob- ably sung in unison, since at that time there could be little question of sing- ing in parts. Owing probably to a scarcity of hymn books, it was custo- mary to read the hymn line by line, and to sing in alternation with the reading, a custom observed in some sections of the United States even in the latter part of the nineteenth cen- tury. It was inevitable that the more pro- gressive "among the clergy and the people should demand better singing of the Psahns; and from this came the first singing schools, the beginning of musical education in the Colonies. A singing school was organized in Bos~ ton in 1717. As this movement spread choirs were organized, since those who had gained some skill in music would naturally draw together, at first infor- mally, later in regular organizations. The prominence given to the singing of Psalms and hymns is doubtless due to the fact that the first composers developed in the Colonies confined their efforts to the production of hymn tunes. The first to gain prominence was William Billings, a tanner by trade and of course self-taught. His efforts at harmonizing were rather crude, as is to be expected, since he had but few models in composition. In 1774 Bil- lings formed a singing class in Stough- ton, Mass., which formed the nucleus of the first important music society in America. This organization still ex- ists. The most famous and most signifi- cant body for musical development was the Handel and Haydn Society, still in existence, whioh was organized in Boston in 1815, with a chorus of near- ly one hundred voices. Boston had at this time some well-trained musicians, and others came from Europe in later years, making it the center of Ameri- can musical life for years. When instrumental music began to receive a share of public attention, a great step was taken toward develop- ment of music in the United States. In cities like Boston, New York, Phil- adelphia, and some Southern homes, instruments of the spinet and virginal type could be found in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. The flute was a gentleman's instrument in those days, following the English custom. The violin also received some atten- tion. Thomas Jefferson was very fond of this instrument. Naturally, the first instruments were brought from Eng- land, yet the record shows that John Harris of Boston, who had learned the trade in England, offered for sale spin- ets of his own make in 1769. Some church organs were built several years earlier. The harpsichord and piano followed in due course of time, as we can gather from advertisements and concert programs. There is controver- sy as to the making of the first pianos' in the United States. Both Philadel- phia and Boston seem to have had makers in a small way before the be- ginning of the nineteenth century. The pioneer in this industry was Jo- nas Pickering, who served his appren- ticeship in Boston and started i~ busi- ness on his own account in 1823. The growth of interest in music arising from the organization of choral socie- ties and the labors of Lowell Mason, and the musicians of foreign birth who came to this country, created a demand for music outside of that for the voice, organ and piano, for m~my of these musicians had been players in the or- chestras in Europe. The first permanent body of orches- tral players was formed in Boston be- fore the Handel and Haydn society was formed. The credit for raising the standard of orchestral work, and of spreading a popular appreciation of the classics in absolute music, belongs to Theodore Thomas, a Get'nan by birth. Following the increased inter- est in orchestral music in New York City, due to the work of Thomas, the Boston musical public called for a high- er standard and a more skilled set of players. The outgrowth of this senti- ment was the establishment of the cel- ebrated Boston Symphony Orchestra, which gave its first concerts in the fall of 1881. Other means for promoting musical progress in the United States were the societies in different parts of the coun- try which provided concerts, aided mu- sical education, kept up public inter- est, the great German singing socie- ties, music festival associations, lecture courses, etc. It is impossible to give here a list of such organizations. They are growing in number over all the country, and hold a hopeful sign of an increasing interest in music. In a study of conditions connected with the development of music in the United States, we will not find the wealth of material in the direction of folk music that European countries possess. The American people, being a composite one, cannot have a true folk music as yet. There are but two types of music that can be classed in that category--the music of the Indi- ans, and that of the Negro in his plantation life. The characteristics of both have been used by American com- posers in large works. (Edward Mac- Dowell, "Indian Suite," for the orches- tra; Frederic Burton, in a choral work.) Yet the Indian race forms no part of the dominant Caucasian people of the United States, and their music can hardly have any claims to being considered American folk songs. Among the Negroes of the South, dur- ing the time of slavery, a type of song developed that possesses distinctive qualities, and is thoroughly pervaded with the emotional quality which char- acterlzes the folk songs of the musical races of Europe. It is not the song of the African in his native land; but the product of his new environment. Par- ticularly is this the case with regard (Continued on Page 9, Column 1) THE CATALINA Cleanses month teeth ud aids Itelleves that eaten feeling ud mOUth. Its l-a-s-t-l-n-g sat~ffes the ermving sweets. Wrlgley'm Is value In the benefit pleasm'e it provides. ~.alsd in ira Parity Packa~. NOTICE INVITING BIDS CITY OF AVALON, FOR THE FURNISHING LABOR AND MATERIAL PROVEMENTS TO THE PAL WHARF FOR SAID Public Notice is hereby sealed bids will be received by Clerk of the City of Avalon, Catalina Island, P. M., Friday, February 29th, the furnishing of all labor ial for improvements to the Wharf for said city, according and specifications therefor the Board of Trustees of said on file in the City Clerk's office city, which said plans and tions are hereby referred to a part of this notice. Said bids must be made which will be furnished by City Clerk upon application accordance with conditions ted. A certified cashier's check bank in the County of Los payable to the order of the of the" Board of Trustees of of Avalon, in a sum equal percent of the aggregate the bid, or a satisfactory amount equal to I0 percent amount of the bid, payable to of Avalon, must accompany as a guarantee that the enter into a contract if awarded in conformity with his bid. The Board of Trustees right to reject any and all bids under. By order of the Board of in the City of Avalon, F.M. City Clerk of the City of fornia. By S. C. Paterson, City of Avalon, California. February 1st, 1924. Newspapers, Magazines Sweets At Windle's News Perhaps you have Found wearing a Catalina Light Club button. If so, tell us about it. There are 6000 buttons out world--somewhere. We want to keep in touch the C. L. T. C. members. Thank you.